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Third party funded projects

The members of the Institute for Economics (IWF) are involved in a wide range of third party funded projects (Drittmittelprojekte).

Current projects are:
  • EOM+: Analyse der kurz- und mittelfristige Auswirkungen von marktbasierten Engpassinstrumenten als regionale und temporäre Ergänzung zum bestehenden Energy-Only-Marktdesign

    (Third Party Funds Group – Overall project)

    Term: 1. November 2019 - 31. October 2022
    Funding source: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi)
  • Midijobs verstehen

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. October 2019 - 30. September 2021
    Funding source: DFG-Einzelförderung / Sachbeihilfe (EIN-SBH)

    Fast 20% der deutschen Erwerbstätigen nutzt Lohnsubventionen: 2017 waren 8.8 Mio. Personen in Minijobs und Midijobs beschäftigt. Minijobs sind Beschäftigungsverhältnisse mit nicht mehr als 450 Euro Verdienst pro Monat. Die Beschäftigten sind von Abgaben freigestellt. Die Arbeitgeber bezahlen pauschale Abgaben. Midijobs betreffen Beschäftigungen mit Monatsverdiensten zwischen 450 und 850 Euro. Die Beschäftigten profitieren von reduzierten, mit dem Einkommen steigenden Abgaben. Arbeitgeber bezahlen volle Sozialversicherungsbeiträge. Verdienste ab 450 Euro pro Monat unterliegen in Gänze der Einkommenssteuer, Verdienste ab 850 Euro sind voll sozialversicherungspflichtig.Trotz ihrer weiten Verbreitung gibt es nahezu keine Studien zu Midijobs. Das Thema ist politikrelevant, da die deutsche Bundesregierung gerade beschlossen hat, die Midijob-Förderung bis zu einer Einkommensobergrenze von 1.300 Euro auszudehnen.Die internationale Literatur setzt sich intensiv mit Lohnsubventionen auseinander. Der deutsche Fall ist besonders interessant, da die Subventionen universal gelten und nicht nur bestimmte Personen, Betriebe, Branchen oder Regionen betreffen. Die Reformen bieten die Chance, kausale Effekte zu identifizieren; die reichhaltigen und umfangreichen Datensätze ermöglichen überzeugende Analysen.Teilprojekt 1 untersucht die Nutzung von Midijobs, insbesondere den Zugang zu und den Austritt aus Midijobs als Informationsbasis für weitere Analysen. Wir betrachten zunächst aus welcher Situation Personen in Midijobs eintreten. Dann wenden wir uns der Analyse von Verweildauer und Austrittsverhalten zu. Wir betrachten dabei Mechanismen wie regionale Arbeitslosigkeit, Einkommenssteuersituation, Kinderbetreuungsmöglichkeiten sowie Rentenzugang und Hinzuverdienstregelungen. Teilprojekt 2 betrachtet die wesentliche Motivation für die Einführung von Midijobs. An der Verdienstgrenze von Minijobs besteht durch den Einschnitt in der Nettolohnverteilung eine "Teilzeitmauer", die die weitere Erhöhung von Verdiensten unattraktiv macht. Midijobs wurden eingeführt, um diese Barriere zu mildern. Wir wenden DID Verfahren an, um zu bestimmen, ob Midijobs die Wahrscheinlichkeit von Verdienstanstiegen über die Minijobgrenze hinaus beeinflussen. Dabei vergleichen wir das Verhalten von Personengruppen, für die die Midijobregeln unterschiedlich starke Verhaltensanreize implizieren.Das Teilprojekt 3 trägt zur Literatur zur Inzidenz von Lohnsubventionen bei. Wir nutzen die vielen Änderungen der Arbeitgeber- und Arbeitnehmerbeiträge im Mini- und Midijobbereich über die Zeit, um deren Lohneffekte zu bestimmen. Das beantwortet die Frage, ob Änderungen der Belastung von Arbeitgebern an die Arbeitnehmer weitergereicht werden und ob Subventionen der Arbeitnehmer Einschnitte bei der Entlohnung zur Folge haben. Diese Zusammenhänge entscheiden darüber, wer von zukünftigen Ausweitungen der Midijobgrenzen profitiert.

  • The Role of Social Identity for Learning in Networks

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. October 2019 - 30. September 2021
    Funding source: DFG-Einzelförderung / Sachbeihilfe (EIN-SBH)
  • Heterogenität makroökonomischer Erwartungen: Welche Rolle spielen individuelle historische Erfahrungen, das örtliche Umfeld und sozioökonomische Faktoren?

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. July 2019 - 30. June 2022
    Funding source: DFG-Einzelförderung / Sachbeihilfe (EIN-SBH)

    Expectations are at the heart of modern macroeconomic theory. The commonly made assumptions of full information rational expectations (Muth, 1961) or its recently proposed variants with information rigidities are simplistic and do not allow for genuine heterogeneity of expectations. In particular, they do not allow individual experiences of households or firms to affect their expectations of aggregate macroeconomic variables. Similarly, the role of individual experiences in the formation of financial expectations and decision making is not yet well understood. This research project will provide empirical analyses based on survey data to enhance our understanding of how individual experiences of private households or firms influence their expectations. This evidence will help relaxing the commonly made assumption in economic models that expectations are formed by a process that is invariant across time and individuals. The results of this research project will be useful for both academic economists and researchers from other disciplines that investigate expectation formation processes as well as for monetary policy makers. The project contributes to the ongoing quest in macroeconomics for a better understanding of the relevance of heterogeneity, in particular of expectations, across households and firms. Overall, the project will lead to a better understanding of survey data on macroeconomic expectations and, thus, will help to properly interpret such surveys. All of these issues are of first-order importance for the conduct of monetary policy because modern central banking relies heavily on expectations, both as a source of information and as a tool to steer the economy.

  • Arbeitsmarkteffekte der Reform des vorzeitigen Rentenbezugs

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. September 2018 - 31. March 2020
    Funding source: andere Förderorganisation
  • Einrichtung eines wissenschafttlichen Dienstes an der FAU im Rahmen der Übernahme Vorsitzes des Unabhängigen Beirats beim Stabilitätsrat durch Herrn Prof. Dr. Büttner

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. September 2018 - 31. August 2020
    Funding source: andere Förderorganisation
    URL: https://www.stabilitaetsrat.de
  • B09 „Strategische Buchungsentscheidungen im Entry-Exit-System“

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: DFG TRR 154 „Mathematische Modellierung, Simulation und Optimierung am Beispiel von Gasnetzwerken“
    Term: 1. July 2018 - 30. June 2022
    Funding source: DFG / Sonderforschungsbereich / Transregio (SFB / TRR)
    URL: https://trr154.fau.de/index.php/de/teilprojekte/b09
    Ziel dieses Teilprojekts ist die Entwicklung von Methoden zur Untersuchung strategischer Interaktion bei Angebotsentscheidungen in Gasmärkten mithilfe mehrstufiger Optimierungsmodelle. Als Ausgangspunkt dient ein Modell des Entry-Exit-Systems in Gasmärkten mit einer Fokussierung auf strategische Buchungs- und Nominierungsentscheidungen von Gasanbietern.Die resultierende zweistufige strategische Interaktion kann als Gleichgewichtsproblem mit Gleichgewichtsrestriktionen (EPEC) formuliert werden. In diesem Marktspiel wählt jeder Marktteilnehmer seine Strategie unter Berücksichtigung der von den anderen Anbietern zeitgleich getroffenen Entscheidungen und unter Berücksichtigung von zeitlich nachgelagerten Entscheidungen. Das zu betrachtende EPEC beschreibt also ein Spiel, bei dem jeder einzelne Spieler ein zweistufiges Optimierungsproblem, genauer ein mathematisches Programm mit Gleichgewichtsrestriktionen (MPEC) lösen muss.Unter Ausnutzung der spezifischen Struktur des resultierenden EPECs sollen passgenaue Algorithmen zur Berechnung der Marktgleichgewichte entwickelt und Rahmenbedingungen identifiziert werden, welche die Existenz und Eindeutigkeit des Marktgleichgewichts sicherstellen. Die theoretischen und algorithmischen Ergebnisse werden schließlich genutzt, um die Auswirkung strategischer Interaktion auf Buchungspreise und Marktergebnisse abzuschätzen und die Abhängigkeit der Lösungen von Marktstruktur und Marktdesign zu untersuchen.
  • Multilevel mixed-integer nonlinear optimization for gas markets (B08) (2018 - 2022)

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: TRR 154: Mathematische Modellierung, Simulation und Optimierung am Beispiel von Gasnetzwerken
    Term: 1. July 2018 - 30. June 2022
    Funding source: DFG / Sonderforschungsbereich / Transregio (SFB / TRR)
    URL: https://trr154.fau.de/index.php/de/teilprojekte/b08

    The main goal of this project is the development of mathematical methods for the solution of multilevel, mixed-integer, and nonlinear optimization models for gas markets. To this end, the focus is on a genuine four-level model of the entry-exit system that can be reformulated as a Bilevel model. The mathematical and algorithmic insights shall then be used to characterize market solutions in the entry-exit system and to compare them to system optima. Particular attention is paid to booking prices for entry or exit capacity.

  • Digitalisierung und ihre Arbeitsmarktwirkungen

    (Own Funds)

    Term: since 1. July 2017

    Die rapide fortschreitende Digitalisierung beeinflusst fast alle Bereiche des Arbeitslebens. Das Projekt untersucht zum einen anhand von Vignettenstudien, ob und unter welchen Umständen Tracking am Arbeitsplatz von Arbeitgebern eingesetzt und von Arbeitnehmern akzeptiert wird. Später sollen auch die Auswirkungen dieser digitalen Kontrolle analysiert werden. Zum anderen geht das Projekt empirisch der Frage nach, wie sich Digitalisierungsinvestitionen auf die Betriebe und die betroffenen Mitarbeiter auswirken. Hier wird u.a. analysiert, welche Arbeitnehmer am stärksten betroffen sind und wie sich ihre Beschäftigung und Entlohnung entwickeln.

  • Storage B – Efficient hydrogen logistics

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: Energie Campus Nürnberg (EnCN2)
    Term: 1. January 2017 - 31. December 2021
    Funding source: andere Förderorganisation, Bayerische Staatsministerien

    Decarbonisation of the mobility sector is an important factor in the fight against climate change. Battery-powered electric vehicles can play an important role in this process. However, special challenges may arise in the fields of range, charging infrastructure, grid stability and heavy goods vehicles. In the short to medium term, it can therefore be assumed that battery electric vehicles will be supplemented by the use of synthetic fuels such as hydrogen. Efficient logistics is an elementary component of hydrogen mobility, especially due to the difficult handling and low volumetric energy density of the gas. In the research focus "Efficient Hydrogen Logistics" of the partial project "Storage B" of EnCN2, an interdisciplinary team of engineers and economists is working on the future of hydrogen mobility. So-called LOHC (Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier) offer an innovative alternative for hydrogen logistic to compressed hydrogen, cryogenic hydrogen or on-site production by electrolysis. The hydrogen molecules can be chemically bound to the liquid LOHC by catalytic hydrogenation and then stored and transported as a liquid without loss. The hydrogen is released at the filling station and the LOHC can be used for reloading. Mathematical models are used to investigate and classify the various technologies and mobility concepts in terms of their economic efficiency and their influence on the energy system.

  • Energiemarktdesign

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: Energie Campus Nürnberg (EnCN2)
    Term: 1. January 2017 - 31. December 2021
    Funding source: andere Förderorganisation, Bayerische Staatsministerien
    URL: http://www.encn.de/en/forschungsthemen/energiemarktdesign/

    In the project “Energy Markt Design” within EnCN2 a team of researchers from economics, mathematics, and law analyses the economic and regulatory environment for the transformation of the energy system. The main objectives are to enhance the methods in energy market modeling and to contribute with well-grounded analyses to the policy discourse in Germany and Europe. For the electricity market, the focus is on the steering effect of market designs on regulated transmission expansion and private investments, as well as on the identification of frameworks at the distribution level that provide regional stakeholders with business models for the provision of flexibility measures. In order to address these complex issues, mathematical techniques are developed within the project that allow for solving the respective models. Another key research topic results from the advancing sector coupling in energy markets. Within EMD, gas market models, that are developed within DFG Transregio 154 (Simulation and Optimization of Gas Networks) in cooperation with project partners, are applied to evaluate the European gas market design. The long-term objective of the research group is an integrated assessment of the electricity and gas market design and their combined effects on investment decisions.

  • Quality control by robust optimisation

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: Produktgestaltung disperser Systeme
    Term: since 1. January 2020
    Funding source: DFG / Sonderforschungsbereich (SFB)

    The objective is the development, algorithmic design, implementation and validation of robust mathematical optimisation methods for protecting the design of particulate products against uncertainties. Global solution methods will be investigated for optimal robust chromatography as well as synthesis processes, develop-ing methods based on reformulation and decomposition. The obtained results will be validated with the projects. Information on which uncertainties are most relevant and should be reduced, together with recommendations on robust optimum design and quality control, will be returned to the experimental Projects.

  • Holistische Optimierung von Trajektorien und Runway Scheduling

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: Holistische Optimierung von Trajektorien und Runway Scheduling
    Term: 1. September 2018 - 31. August 2021
    Funding source: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi)
    URL: https://www.mso.math.fau.de/edom/projects/hotrun/

    Efficient runway utilization is a major issue in airport operation, as capacities are (nearly) reached in many aiports. But planing is highly affected by uncertainties arising from weather changes or disruptions in the operative business. Furthermore, the planing of flight trajectories in the terminal region is by now often neglected in runway scheduling, as time efficient solution methods are mathematically challenging. The overall goal of this project is to combine trajectory and runway schedule computation including resilience against uncertainties in order to obtain stable optimal solutions.

  • MIP techniques for equilibrium models with integer constraints (B07) (2018 - 2022)

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: TRR 154: Mathematische Modellierung, Simulation und Optimierung am Beispiel von Gasnetzwerken
    Term: 1. July 2018 - 30. June 2022
    Funding source: DFG / Sonderforschungsbereich / Transregio (SFB / TRR)
    In this subproject we will develop techniques to solve equilibrium problems with integer constraints using MIP techniques. To this end, we will consider first mixed-integer linear, then mixed-integer nonlinear problems as subproblems. To solve the resulting problems we will study both complete descriptions as also generalized KKT theorems for mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problems.
  • Decomposition methods for mixed-integer optimal control (A05) (2018 - 2022)

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: TRR 154: Mathematische Modellierung, Simulation und Optimierung am Beispiel von Gasnetzwerken
    Term: 1. July 2018 - 30. June 2022
    Funding source: DFG / Sonderforschungsbereich / Transregio (SFB / TRR)

    The focus lies on the development of mathematical decomposition methods for mixed-integer nonlinear optimal control problems on networks. On the top level (master) mixed-integer linear problems are in place, whereas in the sub-problem only continuous variables are considered. The exchange between the levels is performed not only via cutting planes, but also via the modelling of disjunctions to deal with non-convex optimal control problems as well. The overall emphasis is the mathematical analysis of structured mixed nonlinear optimization problems based on hierarchical models.

  • Robustification of Physics Parameters in Gas Networks (B06) (2018 - 2022)

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: TRR 154: Mathematische Modellierung, Simulation und Optimierung am Beispiel von Gasnetzwerken
    Term: 1. July 2018 - 30. June 2022
    Funding source: DFG / Sonderforschungsbereich / Transregio (SFB / TRR)

    The goal of this research project is to study uncertain optimization problems using robust optimization methods. Focusing on transport networks, we aim at the development of tractable robust counterparts for uncertain optimization problems and an analysis of the problem structure. For the arising adjustable robust optimization tasks, good relaxations as well as effective branch-and-bound implementations shall be developed.

  • Optimierte Prozesse für Trajektorie, Instandhaltung, Management von Ressourcen und Abläufen in der Luftfahrt

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. January 2018 - 31. December 2021
    Funding source: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi)
    URL: https://www.mso.math.fau.de/edom/projects/ops-timal/
  • Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Optimisation: Algorithms and Applications

    (Third Party Funds Group – Overall project)

    Term: 1. January 2018 - 31. December 2021
    Funding source: Europäische Union (EU)
    URL: https://minoa-itn.fau.de/

    Building upon the achievements of the Marie-Curie ITN Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Optimization (MINO) (2012 - 2016), the goal of the Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Optimisation Applications (MINOA) proposal is to train the next generation of highly qualified researchers and managers in applied mathematics, operations research and computer science that are able to face the modern imperative challenges of European and international relevance in areas such as energy, logistics, engineering, natural sciences, and data analytics. Twelve Early-Stage Researchers (ESRs) will be trained through an innovative training programme based on individual research projects motivated by these applications that due to their high complexity will stimulate new developments in the field. The mathematical challenges can neither be met by using a single optimisation method alone, nor isolated by single academic partners. Instead, MINOA aims at building bridges between different mathematical methodologies and at creating novel and effective algorithmic enhancements. As special challenges, the ESRs will work on dynamic aspects and optimisation in real time, optimisation under uncertainty, multilevel optimization and non-commutativity in quantum computing. The ESRs will devise new effective algorithms and computer implementations. They will validate their methods for the applications with respect to metrics that they will define. All ESRs will derive recommendations, both for optimised MINO applications and for the effectiveness of the novel methodologies. These ESRs belong to a new generation of highly-skilled researchers that will strengthen Europe'e human capital base in R&I in the fast growing field of mathematical optimisation. The ESR projects will be pursued in joint supervision between experienced practitioners from leading European industries and leading optimisation experts, covering a wide range of scientific fields (from mathematics to quantum computing and real-world applications).

  • Optimierung der Netzeingriffe

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: Flächenbezogene Modellierung, Simulation und Optimierung von Solar-Einspeisung, Lastfluss und Steuerung für Stromverteilnetze, unter Berücksichtigung von Einspeisungsunsicherheiten
    Term: 1. January 2018 - 31. December 2020
    Funding source: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)
    URL: https://www.mso.math.fau.de/edom/projects/verteilnetze/
  • Reduced Order Modelling, Simulation and Optimization of Coupled systems

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: Reduced Order Modelling, Simulation and Optimization of Coupled systems
    Term: 1. September 2017 - 31. August 2021
    Funding source: EU - 8. Rahmenprogramm - Horizon 2020
    URL: https://www.romsoc.eu/
  • Energiemarktdesign

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: Energie Campus Nürnberg (EnCN2)
    Term: 1. January 2017 - 31. December 2021
    Funding source: andere Förderorganisation, Bayerische Staatsministerien
    URL: http://www.encn.de/en/forschungsthemen/energiemarktdesign/

    In the project “Energy Markt Design” within EnCN2 a team of researchers from economics, mathematics, and law analyses the economic and regulatory environment for the transformation of the energy system. The main objectives are to enhance the methods in energy market modeling and to contribute with well-grounded analyses to the policy discourse in Germany and Europe. For the electricity market, the focus is on the steering effect of market designs on regulated transmission expansion and private investments, as well as on the identification of frameworks at the distribution level that provide regional stakeholders with business models for the provision of flexibility measures. In order to address these complex issues, mathematical techniques are developed within the project that allow for solving the respective models. Another key research topic results from the advancing sector coupling in energy markets. Within EMD, gas market models, that are developed within DFG Transregio 154 (Simulation and Optimization of Gas Networks) in cooperation with project partners, are applied to evaluate the European gas market design. The long-term objective of the research group is an integrated assessment of the electricity and gas market design and their combined effects on investment decisions.

Previous projects are:
  • Flexible Verbraucher im Deutschen Strommarkt

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. November 2015 - 31. January 2016
    Funding source: Industrie

    In this research project, we analyze investment incentives for flexible manufacturing facilities within the energy market system. We propose a multi-stage equilibrium model which incorporates generation capacity investment, network expansion and redispatch, and include enhancements regarding a flexible production approach. The model allows to investigate incentives for flexible production as well as locational choices and the impact of flexible energy demand on the energy market as a whole. In particular, we explore the profitability of flexible production units for different shares of flexible energy consumers in the electricity market. Furthermore, we examine from which point on flexible production units will have a considerable influence on energy price development and the extent to which price fluctuations will be mitigated by flexible consumption.

  • Die Wirkungen der Kurzarbeit: Eine Analyse an der Schnittstelle von dynamischer Makro-Arbeitsmarkttheorie und angewandter Ökonometrie

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. June 2015 - 1. June 2018
    Funding source: Fritz Thyssen Stiftung
  • Zukunft der EU-Finanzen

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 22. April 2015 - 20. December 2015
    Funding source: Industrie
  • Experimental Validation of Indicators of Manager Behavior in Business Surveys

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 2. April 2015 - 31. December 2016
    Funding source: andere Förderorganisation

    The aim of the project is to analyze connections between manager behavior and firm level variables. The first step is the identification of suitable behavioral indicators in questionnaires that will be validated in controlled laboratory experiments. The experiments are meant to examine and evaluate fundamental relationships between different indicators and economically relevant decision making. The project points towards providing the basic elements to collect the identified behavioral indicators by means of short questions or simply decisions within questionnaires.

  • Eine komparative Analyse der Ursachen und Konsequenzen von Ungleichheit: wie wirken sich frühkindliche Bedingungen auf die Entwicklung von Kindern aus?

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. March 2015 - 31. October 2016
    Funding source: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
  • Koordinierte Kleinspeicher im Verteilnetz der N-ERGIE Aktiengesellschaft (SWARM)

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. January 2015 - 31. December 2017
    Funding source: Industrie
    Im Rahmen des Kooperationsprojektes SWARM der N-ERGIE AG und dem Energie Campus Nürnberg (EnCN) beschäftigt sich unter anderem der Lehrstuhl für Informatik 7 (Rechnernetze und Kommunikationssysteme) mit den Fragestellungen, unter welchen Bedingungen Privathaushalte in innovative Stromspeicher investieren, wie sich diese Speicher auf die Stabilität des Stromnetzes auswirken und welchen ökonomischen Nutzen sie aus Sicht des Netzbetreibers bzw. der Privathaushalte schaffen.

    Übergeordnetes Ziel der Untersuchungen ist es, Erkenntnisse über vernetzte Speicher zu gewinnen und zu vertiefen.Das von der Caterva GmbH entwickelte Energiespeichersystem (ESS) mit einer Gesamtleistung von 20 kW und einer Bruttokapazität von 21 kWh richtet sich an Privathaushalte, die deutlich mehr als die durchschnittlich üblichen 30 Prozent ihres selbst erzeugten PV-Stroms nutzen möchten, da das ESS eine hohe Deckung des individuellen Strombedarfs aus Eigenerzeugung ermöglicht.

    Die Innovation des Systems liegt jedoch in seiner zweiten Funktion: Die Energiespeichersysteme können sich zu einem virtuellen Großspeicher vernetzen, der am Primärregelleistungsmarkt teilnimmt und damit eine Stabilisierungsfunktion im Stromnetz übernimmt. Der virtuelle Großspeicher speichert Strom bei einem Überangebot im Netz und speist umgekehrt bei Strombedarf in das Netz ein.Der Lehrstuhl für Informatik 7 (Rechnernetze und Kommunikationssysteme) entwickelt ein Simulationsmodell eines Kleinspeicher-Verbunds. Ziel des Modells ist es, die technischen Auswirkungen der Speicher auf die Netze zu ermitteln, sowie den ökonomischen Nutzen sowohl für die beteiligten Privathaushalte als auch für das gesamte Energiesystem zu identifizieren.

  • Adaptive MIP-Relaxations for MINLPs (B07) (2014 - 2018)

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: TRR 154: Mathematical Modelling, Simulation and Optimisation Using the Example of Gas Networks
    Term: since 1. October 2014
    Funding source: DFG / Sonderforschungsbereich / Transregio (SFB / TRR)
    Goal of the project is the analysis and solution of large-scale MINLPs, especially from the application of instationary gas network optimization, using adaptive MIP models. We approximate the nonlinearities with piecewise-linear functions to construct MIP relaxiations of the underlying MINLP. In addition, theoretical results linking the complexity of the relaxiations to structural properties of the nonlinear functions and the linearization error shall be derived.
  • Causal determinants of maternal labor market outcomes and child development

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: SPP 1764: The German Labour Market in a Globalised World: Challenges through Trade, Technology and Demographics
    Term: 1. August 2014 - 30. September 2017
    Funding source: DFG / Schwerpunktprogramm (SPP)
    In a situation of demographic aging, impending shortages of skilled labor, and rising female labor force participation rates, Germany as well as other OECD countries have adopted a set of reforms (of child care, parental leave benefits, paternal family leave) which directly affect maternal labor force participation and the social norms of childrearing, and which indirectly impact child development. Against this backdrop we propose to use up-to-date data and methods to answer questions of international relevance and to improve our understanding of the determinants of maternal labor market outcomes and child development. The results generate new insights on issues of utmost social interest such as the patterns behind female participation in the labor market and the determinants of child wellbeing including its heterogeneity across parental backgrounds.Specifically, the proposed project investigates the causal effects of (1) motherhood timing on maternal labor market outcomes (e.g., participation, working hours, or wages), (2) motherhood timing and birth spacing on child outcomes (e.g., cognitive and non-cognitive skills), and (3) maternal labor market participation and employment interruptions on child outcomes (e.g., health and behavioral problems). To identify causal effects, subprojects 1 and 2 use the individual experience of fertility shocks (e.g., miscarriages or temporal infertility of either parent) and subproject 3 exploits a recent reform of the German parental leave system which generated a sharp institutional discontinuity with little opportunity for anticipation.Using recent data and innovative approaches our research will answer questions of high relevance for society and policy-makers, such as- does delaying first births improve maternal labor market outcomes, and does the effect vary by maternal age?- can parents affect their children's early skill formation through longer spacing between sibling births?- does maternal leave taking in the first or second year of a child's life improve child outcomes and does the effect vary by maternal education and the child's sex?Each of our three subprojects proposes original research questions and applies appropriate research designs to advance the level of knowledge and to extend the international literature in various innovative ways. The proposed research benefits from the availability of the data and from the initiative and commitment of an experienced international research team. Furthermore, each subproject is socially and economically relevant beyond mere scientific interest.
  • TRR 154: Mathematical Modelling, Simulation and Optimisation Using the Example of Gas Networks

    (Third Party Funds Group – Overall project)

    Term: since 1. July 2014
    Funding source: DFG / Sonderforschungsbereich / Transregio (SFB / TRR)
    URL: http://trr154.fau.de/

    The "turnaround in energy policy" is currently in the main focus of public opinion. It concerns social, political and scientific aspects as the dependence on a reliable, efficient and affordable energy supply becomes increasingly dominant. On the other side, the desire for a clean, environmentally consistent and climate-friendly energy production is stronger than ever. To balance these tendencies while making a transition to nuclear-free energy supply, gas becomes more and more important in the decades to come. Natural gas is and will be sufficiently available, is storable and can be traded.
    On the other side, focussing on an efficient handling of gas transportation induces a number of technical and regulatory problems, also in the context of coupling to other energy carriers. As an example, energy transporters are required by law to provide evidence that within the given capacities all contracts defining the market are physically and technically feasible. Given the amount of data and the potential of stochastic effects, this is a formidable task all by itself, regardless from the actual process of distributing the proper amount of gas with the required quality to the customer.
    It is the goal of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre to provide certified novel answers to these grand challenges, based on mathematical modelling, simulation and optimisation. In order to achieve this goal new paradigms in the integration of these disciplines and in particular in the interplay between integer and nonlinear programming in the context of stochastic data have to be established and brought to bear. Clearly, without a specified underlying structure of the problems to face, such a breakthrough is rather unlikely.
    Thus, the particular network structure, the given hierarchical hybrid modelling in terms of switching algebraic, ordinary and partial differential-algebraic equations of hyperbolic type that is present in gas network transportation systems gives rise to the confidence that the challenges can be met by the team of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre. Moreover, the fundamental research conducted here will also be applicable in the context of other energy networks such as fresh- and waste-water networks.
    In this respect, the research goes beyond the exemplary problem chosen and will provide, besides a cutting edge in enabling technologies, new mathematics in the emerging area of discrete, respectively, integer and continuous problems.

    The following Sub projects are located at FAU:

  • Robustification of Physics Parameters in Gas Networks (B06) (2014 - 2018)

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: TRR 154: Mathematical Modelling, Simulation and Optimisation Using the Example of Gas Networks
    Term: since 1. July 2014
    Funding source: DFG / Sonderforschungsbereich / Transregio (SFB / TRR)
    The goal of this research project is to study uncertain optimization problems using robust optimization methods. Focusing on transport networks, we aim at the development of tractable robust counterparts for uncertain optimization problems and an analysis of the problem structure. For the arising adjustable robust optimization tasks, good relaxations as well as effective branch-and-bound implementations shall be developed.
  • Integrated graduate school research training group (MGK)

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: TRR 154: Mathematical Modelling, Simulation and Optimisation Using the Example of Gas Networks
    Term: since 1. July 2014
    Funding source: DFG / Sonderforschungsbereich / Integriertes Graduiertenkolleg (SFB / GRK)
    The integrated graduate school offers young researchers in the TRR 154 an interdisciplinary scientific education and training in Mathematical Modeling, Simulation und Optimization for Gas Networks by organizing summer and winter schools, excursions to companies, lectures and colloquia. Moreover, it supports the industrial or academic career entry by a mentoring program and soft skill courses.
  • Central Tasks (Z03) (2014 - 2022)

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: TRR 154: Mathematical Modelling, Simulation and Optimisation Using the Example of Gas Networks
    Term: since 1. July 2014
    Funding source: DFG / Sonderforschungsbereich / Transregio (SFB / TRR)
  • Decomposition methods for mixed-integer optimal control (A05) (2014 - 2018)

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: TRR 154: Mathematical Modelling, Simulation and Optimisation Using the Example of Gas Networks
    Term: since 1. July 2014
    Funding source: DFG / Sonderforschungsbereich / Transregio (SFB / TRR)
    The focus lies on the development of mathematical decomposition methods for mixed-integer nonlinear optimal control problems on networks. On the top level (master) mixed-integer linear problems are in place, whereas in the sub-problem only continuous variables are considered. The exchange between the levels is performed not only via cutting planes, but also via the modelling of disjunctions to deal with non-convex optimal control problems as well. The overall emphasis is the mathematical analysis of structured mixed nonlinear optimization problems based on hierarchical models.
  • Evaluation of Smart Grid-Field Experiment

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. January 2014 - 31. December 2015
    Funding source: Industrie

    Within the cooperative project SWARM between the N-ERGIE AG and the Energy Campus Nuremberg (EnCN), the chair of economic theory deals with investment incentives in innovative energy storage systems of private households and the influence of these storages on the supply grid. Further, we investigate the economic advantages they provide to supply system operators or households. The overall goal of the research activities within the SWARM project is to gain knowledge about connected distributed energy storages (swarm storage) running as one virtual electricity storage.

  • International Graduate Program "Evidence Based Economics"

    (Third Party Funds Group – Overall project)

    Term: 1. October 2013 - 30. September 2017
    Funding source: Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Bildung und Kultus, Wissenschaft und Kunst (ab 10/2013)
    URL: http://www.ebe.econ.uni-muenchen.de/index.html

    The International Graduate Program Evidence-Based Economics (EBE) is a joint undertaking of the Universities of Munich, Erlangen-Nuremberg and Regensburg generously funded by the Elite Network of Bavaria.

    The objective of the program is to train doctoral students to work at the frontier of theory-guided, evidence-based economics. Integrating theory, empirical methods, and policy analysis in both training and research  is the main innovation.
    It focuses on an integrated methodological approach and allows for substantive applications from different fields in economics. Within the porgram, we closely cooperate with firms, non-profit organizations, research institutions, and leading scholars worldwide, both in training and research supervision.

  • Personnel Policy in Cooperatives

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. April 2013 - 30. April 2014
    Funding source: andere Förderorganisation

    One of the goals of this project wasto answer the question whether cooperatives are indeed organizational formsthat foster behaviors that are related to high performance work practicesor commitment-oriented behaviors. Our findings indicate thatcooperatives and especially producer’s cooperatives are in fact such types oforganizations. They more often engage in profit sharing and they investmore in the training of their employees than other organizations do (i.e. investor-owned firms).

  • Experimental studies on the impact of collective bargaining on the gender wage gap

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. December 2012 - 30. December 2015
    Funding source: Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend (BMFSFJ)
    URL: http://www.wirtschaftstheorie.wiso.uni-erlangen.de/de/tarifverhandlungen-und-equal-pay/

    The aim of the project is to analyze bargaining processes and their impact on gender wage differentials. In particular, we want to identify potential leverages for a reduction of the remaining gender wage gap under collective bargaining agreements. An important aspect is the gender segregation in pay grades. Whereas men and women are paid equally within grades, the classification of jobs will probably play a crucial role. The research project conducts stylized negotiations to gain insights in wage formation processes. Based on economic experiments, we investigate in particular the following questions: Why and how might a gender wage gap arise from or in spite of collective bargaining? Can the gender wage gap be reduced by increasing transparency?

  • Trust in Character, Capability and Institutions

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. June 2012 - 31. May 2015
    Funding source: Industrie

    In this project we conducted an experimental study among European citizens regarding cross-cultural perceptions related to trust in two dimensions: volunteerism and honesty. We used representative samples from five major economies of the Euro area: France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain. We find that European citizens rely on nationality to infer behavior. Assessments of behavior show a north/south pattern: participants from northern countries are perceived to be more honest and to provide more effort in a volunteering game than participants from southern countries. Actual behavior is, however, not always in line with these assessments. Assessments of honesty show strong evidence of social projection: Participants expect other European citizens to be less honest if they are culturally closer to themselves. Assessments of volunteerism instead show that both northern and southern Europeans expect higher performance in northern than in southern European countries.

  • Implementierung im Marktumfeld

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: Solarfabrik der Zukunft: Smart Grid Solar
    Term: 1. June 2012 - 31. December 2015
    Funding source: Europäische Union (EU), Bayerische Staatsministerien
    URL: http://www.smart-grid-solar.de/index.html

    Since the Energy Market Liberalization, all the various decisions regarding the optimal energy supply in Germany are no longer made by fully integrated power supply companies. Instead, decisions are made by different market participants in a decentralized way. Beyond the economical optimization of the interaction between grid, suppliers, storages and consumers, a key question is, to what extent the current market design coupled with policy control mechanisms (e.g. the EEG regulations) actually reaches the implementation of the optimal system via the various decisions of all market participants.The core of the economic analysis evaluates the implementation of a smart grid system considering all relevant market participants within different political frameworks in a quantitative way. Comparing the optimal solutions derived by the work package optimization and simulation enables an identification of the necessary changes in the market design and the legal framework.

  • Taxation, Social Norms, and Compliance: Lessons for Institution Design

    (FAU Funds)

    The goal of the project “Taxation, Social Norms, and Compliance: Lessons for Institution Design” is to foster research on individual and social determinants of tax compliance. In particular, the project aims to investigate the role of institutions and of social and cultural norms for tax compliance as well as its behavioral foundations. With regard to formal institutions, the project considers the design of the tax system as well the role of tax administration and of tax accounting. Further, it also addresses social and cultural norms, which is crucial given that tax compliance depends on norms like fairness as well as on the perceptions of other taxpayers’ adherence to these norms. Finally, the project also includes a specific behavioral component that explores the preferences and the decision process of the individual taxpayer.

  • Economy

    (Third Party Funds Group – Sub project)

    Overall project: Energie Campus Nürnberg (EnCN1)
    Term: 29. July 2011 - 31. December 2015
    Funding source: Bayerische Staatsministerien
    URL: http://www.encn.de/de/ueber-uns/gruendungsprojekte/economy/

    The general framework of energy trade, the decisions concerning regulatory interventions and the deployment of climate-policy instruments demonstrably affect energy prices, investment incentives and the success of innovations. This project is aimed at exploring the impact of market designs and regulation on the said decisive economic factors.

    Research focuses on:

    • Analyzing different pricing rules applied at the electricity stock exchange;
    • Analyzing the effects of different climate-policy instruments such as emissions trade, feed-in tariffs or quota regulations on investment and innovation incentives, and other issues;
    • Actively participating in the ongoing debate on energy policies; and
    • Analyzing the economic impact and opportunities of innovative technologies on power grids (e.g., “smart grids” or “smart metering”).

    The project group mainly focuses on the effects of political decisions regarding the economy and climate on the composition of power plant parks and the long-term opportunities and risks different technologies have to offer. One of the central points is the percentage of renewable energy that can be attained from power generation in the long term.

    The work methods applied by the project group are a combination of theoretical, empirical and experimental approaches.

  • Betriebsschließungen in Deutschland: Umfang, Verlauf und Einflussfaktoren

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. February 2011 - 30. March 2013
    Funding source: DFG-Einzelförderung / Sachbeihilfe (EIN-SBH)

    Während Betriebsgründungen bereits relativ gut erforscht sind, kann davon bei Betriebsschließungen – insbesondere für Deutschland – noch nicht die Rede sein. Der Großteil vorhandener Studien bezieht sich auf Westdeutschland oder einzelne Bundesländer, umfasst meist nur relativ kurze Zeiträume oder konzentriert sich auf neu gegründete Betriebe.Im Rahmen dieses Projekts soll erstmals umfassend untersucht werden, welche Betriebe schließen, warum dies der Fall ist und wie das Betriebssterben vor sich geht (eher abrupt oder vorhersehbar anhand sinkender Beschäftigtenzahlen vor der Schließung). Dabei wird analysiert, welche internen sowie externen Einflussfaktoren die Sterbewahrscheinlichkeit von Betrieben maßgeblich beeinflussen und welche Auswirkungen Rezessionen (wie die jüngste Wirtschaftskrise) auf das Betriebssterben haben. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit erfährt die Beschäftigungsentwicklung bzw. Arbeitnehmerfluktuation in den Jahren vor der Schließung. Weitere Fragestellungen betreffen den Zusammenhang zwischen Entlohnung und Betriebssterben, inwieweit Lohnrigiditäten die Schließungswahrscheinlichkeit beeinflussen und ob die Anwendung tariflicher öffnungsklauseln Betriebe vor dem Sterben bewahren kann. Bei allen Fragestellungen ist zudem von Interesse, ob Unterschiede zwischen jungen und alten Betrieben bestehen.Für die Untersuchung der genannten Fragestellungen wird in erster Linie das umfassende Betriebs- Historik-Panel der Bundesagentur für Arbeit verwendet, das Angaben zu 50 Prozent aller Betriebe ab 1975 enthält. Weiterhin soll der Linked-Employer-Employee-Datensatz des IAB herangezogen werden, der neben repräsentativen Betriebsdaten auch personenbezogene Sozialversicherungsdaten (wie z. B. Qualifikation, Betriebszugehörigkeit, Fluktuation) enthält.

  • Internationale Unternehmensbesteuerung und Konzernstrukturen

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. June 2010 - 30. June 2012
    Funding source: DFG-Einzelförderung / Sachbeihilfe (EIN-SBH)
    Das Forschungsprogramm des beantragten Projekts zielt darauf ab, empirische Evidenz für Wirkungen der Besteuerung von grenzüberschreitend tätigen Konzernen zu erarbeiten. Im Gegensatz zu den bestehenden empirischen Arbeiten zur Wirkung der Besteuerung von international tätigen Unternehmen berücksichtigt das Projekt die Möglichkeiten der Konzerne, internationale Beteiligungsstrukturen zwischen den rechtlich selbständigen Gesellschaften steueroptimierend einzusetzen. Mit dieser Schwerpunktsetzung wird insbesondere der Tatsache Rechnung getragen, dass durch grenzüberschreitende Beteiligungsstrukturen die steuerlichen Bemessungsgrundlagen der zum Konzern gehörenden Gesellschaften stark verändert werden können, auch ohne dass die Produktion verlagert wird. Das Arbeitsprogramm zielt dabei sowohl auf die Untersuchung des Einflusses der Besteuerung auf die Struktur von grenzüberschreitend tätigen Konzernen ab, als auch auf eine Analyse der Konsequenzen der Konzernstruktur für die Effekte der Besteuerung auf die Investitions- und Finanzierungsentscheidungen der Tochtergesellschaften. Grundlage der empirischen Arbeiten ist die MiDi-Datenbank (Microdatabase Direct Investment), welche die Deutsche Bundesbank für Forschungszwecke zugänglich macht. Ein bedeutender Vorteil dieser Datenquelle ist der Vollerhebungscharakter, da die Datenerhebung auf Meldeverpflichtungen des Außenwirtschafts-gesetzes beruht. änderungen der Konzernstrukturen sind zudem jährlich nachvollziehbar.
  • Reputation Formation in Social Systems

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. April 2010 - 20. September 2012
    Funding source: DFG-Einzelförderung / Sachbeihilfe (EIN-SBH)
    URL: http://gepris.dfg.de/gepris/projekt/166176814

    The project focuses on the question how reputation evolves in economic transactions. Oftentimes, business partners cannot rely on their own experience with their counterpart. Thus, the reputation of business partners plays a crucial role in many markets. While the effect of reputation has been the focus of many studies within this field of research, the present investigates the formation of reputation both theoretically and empirically. We are particularly interested in reputation that evolves in the direct interaction between business partners while institution-based reputation mechanisms (e.g. formal rankings on online platforms or media coverage) are deliberately excluded. On the basis of game theory and laboratory experiment we investigate the conditions that foster the formation of reputation and the circumstances that rather prevent their evolvement. In a second step, the results from the laboratory experiments will be validated with field data.

  • Development of new Linear and Integer Programming Techniques to solve Supply Chain Management Problems

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: since 1. March 2010
    Funding source: Industrie

    Supply Chain Management (SCM) deals with the combination of procurement, production, storage, transport and delivery of commodities. Problems of this kind occur in all kinds of industry branches. Since the integrated planning of these processes contains a high potential for optimization it is of great importance for the companies’ efficiency.

    The method of choice to find optimal solutions in SCM is linear and integer programming. Nevertheless, there are big challenges to overcome – concerning both hardware and algorithms – due to very detailed and therefore large models. Additionally there may occur numerical difficulties that standard techniques cannot deal with.

    As a consequence, the problem’s mathematical formulation has to be done carefully and new methods need to be implemented to improve the performance of MIP algorithms.

  • Löhne und Lohndifferenziale

    (Own Funds)

    Term: since 1. January 2000

    Bei der Entlohnung gibt es deutliche Unterschiede zwischen Arbeitnehmern, Betrieben und Branchen. Das Projekt ermittelt anhand von Daten aus dem In- und Ausland das Ausmaß dieser Unterschiede sowie deren Hintergründe und Einflussfaktoren. Besonderers im Fokus steht das geschlechterspezifische Lohndifferenzial, wobei u.a. untersucht wird, inwieweit die geringere Entlohnung von Frauen auf Diskriminierung zurückzuführen ist. Analysiert werden auch Unterschiede zwischen verschiedenen Gruppen von Betrieben (z.B. Exporteure vs. Nicht-Exporteure) und zwischen dem privaten und öffentlichen Sektor. Zudem werden das Ausmaß und die Hintergründe einer Beschäftigung zu Niedriglöhnen sowie die Aufstiegsmöglichkeiten von Geringverdienern empirisch untersucht.